Open Access

Evaluating revised biomass equations: are some forest types more equivalent than others?

Carbon Balance and Management201611:2

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13021-015-0042-5

Received: 26 October 2015

Accepted: 22 December 2015

Published: 12 January 2016

Abstract

Background

In 2014, Chojnacky et al. published a revised set of biomass equations for trees of temperate US forests, expanding on an existing equation set (published in 2003 by Jenkins et al.), both of which were developed from published equations using a meta-analytical approach. Given the similarities in the approach to developing the equations, an examination of similarities or differences in carbon stock estimates generated with both sets of equations benefits investigators using the Jenkins et al. (For Sci 49:12–34, 2003) equations or the software tools into which they are incorporated. We provide a roadmap for applying the newer set to the tree species of the US, present results of equivalence testing for carbon stock estimates, and provide some general guidance on circumstances when equation choice is likely to have an effect on the carbon stock estimate.

Results

Total carbon stocks in live trees, as predicted by the two sets, differed by less than one percent at a national level. Greater differences, sometimes exceeding 10–15 %, were found for individual regions or forest type groups. Differences varied in magnitude and direction; one equation set did not consistently produce a higher or lower estimate than the other.

Conclusions

Biomass estimates for a few forest type groups are clearly not equivalent between the two equation sets—southern pines, northern spruce-fir, and lower productivity arid western forests—while estimates for the majority of forest type groups are generally equivalent at the scales presented. Overall, the possibility of very different results between the Chojnacky and Jenkins sets decreases with aggregate summaries of those ‘equivalent’ type groups.

Keywords

Biomass estimationAllometryForest carbon stocksTests of equivalenceIndividual-tree estimates by species group

Background

Nationally consistent biomass equations can be important to forest carbon research and reporting activities. In general, the consistency is based on an assumption that allometric relationships within forest species do not vary by region. Essentially, nearly identical trees even in distant locations should have nearly identical carbon mass. In 2003, Jenkins et al. published a set of 10 equations for estimating live tree biomass, developed from existing equations using a meta-analytical approach, which were intended to be applicable over temperate forests of the United States [1]. These equations were developed to support US forest carbon inventory and reporting, and had several key elements: (1) a national scale, so that regional variations in biomass estimates due to the use of local biomass equations was eliminated, (2) the exclusion of height as a predictor variable, and (3) in addition to equations to estimate aboveground biomass, a set of component equations allowing the separate estimation of biomass in coarse roots, stem bark, stem wood, and foliage. Since their introduction, these equations have been incorporated into the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator as a calculation option [2], utilized in NED-2 [3], and have provided the basis for calculating the forest carbon contribution to the US annual greenhouse gas inventories for submission years 2004–2011 (e.g., see [4]). Researchers in Canada [5, 6] and the US (e.g. [79]) have also employed the equations while other investigators have adopted the component ratios to estimate biomass in coarse roots or other components (e.g. [10, 11]).

In 2014, Chojnacky et al. [12] introduced a revised set of generalized biomass equations for estimating aboveground biomass. These equations were developed using the same underlying data compilations and general approaches to developing the individual tree biomass estimates as for Jenkins et al. [1], but with greater differentiation among species groups, resulting in a set of 35 generalized equations: 13 for conifers, 18 for hardwoods, and 4 for woodland species. Important distinctions are: the database used to generate the revised equations was updated to include an additional 838 equations that appeared in the literature since the publication of the 2003 work or were not included at that time, taxonomic groupings were employed to account for differences in allometry, and taxa were further subdivided in cases where wood density varied considerably within a taxon. The only component equation revised by Chojnacky et al. [12] was for roots; equations were fitted for fine and coarse roots, in contrast to Jenkins et al. [1] where fine roots were not considered separately.

Based on the similarity of the equation development approach, it is likely that applications using the Jenkins et al. [1] set would have essentially the same basis for employing the revised equations. Since the primary objective of Chojnacky et al. [12] was to present the updated equations and describe the nature of the changes, only a brief discussion of the behavior of the updated equations vs. the Jenkins et al. [1] equation set was included. The authors noted that at a national level results were similar, while differences occurred in some species groups, for example, western pines, spruce/fir types, and woodland species. Given the limited information provided in Chojnacky et al. [12] we felt that a more thorough investigation of the differences in carbon stock estimates as generated with both sets of equations was needed.

One potentially practical result from a comparison of the two approaches is to identify where one set effectively substitutes for the other, which then suggests that revising or updating estimates would change little from previous analyses. For this reason we applied equivalence tests to determine the effective difference of the Chojnacky-based estimates relative to the Jenkins values. Note that hereafter we label the respective equations and species groups as Chojnacky and Jenkins (i.e., in reference to their products not the publications, per se).

In this paper, we: (1) provide a roadmap for applying the Chojnacky equations to the tree species of the US Forest Service’s forest inventory [13], (2) present results of equivalence testing for carbon stock estimates computed using both sets of equations, and (3) provide general guidance on the circumstances when the choice of equation is likely to have an important effect on the carbon stock estimate. Note that we do not attempt any evaluation of relative accuracy or the relative merit of one approach relative to the other.

Results and discussion

We conducted multiple equivalence tests on data aggregated at various levels of resolution. As noted by Chojnacky et al. [12], at a national level the carbon density predicted by both equations was the same when grouped by just hardwoods and softwoods, while some type groups showed differences (though no statistical comparisons were conducted). Relative differences emerged as four regions (Fig. 1) relative to the entire United States were used to summarize total carbon stocks in the aboveground portion of live trees as shown in Fig. 2. Totals for the US as well as separate summaries according to either softwood or hardwood forest type groups (not shown) are about 1 % different. This similarity in aggregate values between the two approaches holds for the Rocky Mountain and North regions, where there is less than a 1 % difference between the two. There are more sizeable differences in the Pacific Coast and South regions, notably differing in direction and magnitude. The largest difference is in the South. Note that our results are presented in terms of carbon mass rather than biomass.
Fig. 1

Regional classifications used in this analysis. Area of forest inventory used inclues all of conterminous United States as well as southern coastal Alaska (shaded gray areas)

Fig. 2

Effect of the Chojnacky et al. [12] species groups and biomass equations on estimated total stocks of carbon. Estimates are of carbon in the aboveground portion of live trees relative to the estimates provided by the Jenkins et al. [1] species groups and biomass equations

To examine the drivers of those differences, we carried out equivalence tests by forest type group at both the national and regional levels on the mean density of carbon in aboveground live trees; a summary of the results is given in Table 1. The quantity tested is mean difference (Chojnacky − Jenkins) in plot level tonnes carbon per hectare; the test for equivalence was based on the percentage difference relative to the Jenkins based estimate (i.e. 100 × ((Chojnacky − Jenkins)/Jenkins)). The 5 (or 10) % of Jenkins, which was set as the equivalence interval, was put in units of tonnes per hectare for comparison with the 95 % confidence interval for the α = 0.05 (or α = 0.1) two one-sided tests (TOST) of equivalence. Of the 26 forest type groups included in the analysis, 20 are equivalent (at 5 or 10 %) at the national level, with most equivalent at 5 %. The exceptions are: spruce/fir, longleaf/slash pine, loblolly/shortleaf pine, pinyon/juniper, other western softwoods, and woodland hardwoods. At a regional level, differences emerge; in the North, only spruce/fir and loblolly/shortleaf pine are not equivalent (too few plots were available in pinyon/juniper for a reliable test statistic) while in the South, the pine types lacked equivalence, as did pinyon/juniper. This is very likely a reflection of the fact that the Chojnacky equations divide some taxa by specific gravity, while the Jenkins equations do not; softwoods generally display a larger range of specific gravity values within a species group than do hardwoods [14]. Researchers have noted considerable variability in the estimates produced by different southern pine biomass equations [15], even between different sets of local equations. Specific gravity, as mentioned above, is a factor, (southern pines exhibit considerable variability in specific gravity), as well as stand origin, and the mathematical form of the equation itself. Melson et al. [16], in their investigation of the effects of model selection on carbon stock estimates in northwest Oregon, noted that the national level Jenkins [1] equations produced biomass estimates for Picea that were consistently lower than from approaches developed by the investigators, and hypothesized that differences in form between Picea species introduced bias into the generalized equation.
Table 1

Mean stock of carbon in aboveground live tree biomass as computed using the equations from Jenkins et al. [1] and Chojnacky et al. [12]

Forest type group

All USa

North

South

Rocky Mountain

Pacific Coast

Jenkins

Chojnacky

Jenkins

Chojnacky

Jenkins

Chojnacky

Jenkins

Chojnacky

Jenkins

Chojnacky

White/red/jack pine

68.7**

67.2**

67.7**

66.2**

92.4**

93.5**

    

Spruce/fir

45.8

40.1

47.5

41.6

    

20.5*

18.9*

Longleaf/slash pine

35.4

40.6

  

35.4

40.6

    

Loblolly/shortleaf pine

47.0

54

59.0

67.1

47.2

54.1

    

Pinyon/juniper

18.4

22.5

15.5

17.2

11.5

13.3

19.6

24.1

21.4

23.4

Douglas-fir

114.5*

108.0*

    

71.4*

66.5*

148.6*

140.9*

Ponderosa pine

50.0**

50.7**

37.3**

37.9**

  

46.3**

47.1**

53.5**

54.2**

Western white pine

66.2**

67.6**

      

74.6

76.7

Fir/spruce/mtn hemlock

92.2*

87.1*

    

71.8

64.4

119.4**

117.4**

Lodgepole pine

48.6**

48.2**

    

48.2**

47.2**

49.5**

49.7**

Hemlock/sitka spruce

155.1**

151.0**

    

108.8*

101.4*

159.7**

155.9**

Western larch

62.6**

65.2**

    

55.4**

57.5**

69.6

72.6

Redwood

236.2**

235.3**

      

236.2**

235.3**

Other western softwoods

27.0

35.3

    

43.2 *

45.8 *

19.5

30.4

California mixed conifer

134.7**

132.8**

      

134.7**

132.8**

Oak/pine

54.1**

56.6**

64.4**

65.5**

50.9 *

53.9 *

    

Oak/hickory

72.7**

72.8**

78.7**

78.8**

65.2**

65.3**

    

Oak/gum/cypress

78.1**

79.7**

86.9**

85.2**

78.5**

80.3**

    

Elm/ash/cottonwood

56.6**

56.6**

60.6**

59.8**

50.4**

52.2**

48.8**

48.2**

82.3

71.8

Maple/beech/birch

80.7**

80.3**

80.1**

79.7**

82.1**

83.3**

    

Aspen/birch

45.3**

43.2**

43.9**

41.8**

  

52.8**

50.4**

38.0**

36.5**

Alder/maple

98.5**

100.1**

      

99.4**

101.0**

Western oak

64.7*

61.1*

      

64.7**

61.1**

Tanoak/laurel

131.2**

134.6**

      

131.2**

134.6**

Other hardwoods

49.6**

51.2**

43.0*

45.8*

43.2*

45.9*

  

67.5**

66.3**

Woodland hardwoods

8.6

11.1

  

5.0

7.0

12.7

15.7

22.1

29.5

Values followed by a double asterisk (**) are equivalent at 5 %; values followed by a single asterisk (*) are equivalent at 10 %. Regions are as shown in Fig. 1. A diamond preceding a value indicates that the sample size was too small for a reliable test of equivalence. Data not shown for categories represented by fewer than 10 plots

aAs shown in Fig. 1

Pinyon/juniper was not equivalent in any region in which it was tested. While fir/spruce/mountain hemlock was not equivalent in the Rocky Mountains, the stock estimates were equivalent to 5 % in the Pacific Coast region, likely a function of the species and size classes that dominate the groups in each of these regions. The elm/ash/cottonwood category is represented in each region, and was equivalent to 5 % in all areas except the Pacific Coast. The woodland class has been less well studied than the others, and so less data and fewer equations are available to construct generalized equations like those in Jenkins et al. [1] and Chojnacky et al. [12]. Consequently, the woodland equations are not equivalent at the national level or in any region.

We also explored the effect of size class on equation performance, testing each combination of forest type group and stand size class and found notable differences among size classes, though no evidence of a systematic pattern. A summary of the results is given in Fig. 3a and 3b; the error bars represent the 95 % confidence interval transformed to percentage. Not every combination is shown; groups with results similar to another or comprising a very small proportion of plots are not included. While some groups such as ponderosa pine, oak/hickory, lodgepole pine, and white/red/jack pine show small differences between size classes and are equivalent (or nearly so), others such as loblolly/shortleaf pine, longleaf/slash pine (data not shown), woodland hardwoods, and spruce/fir show a strong pattern of increasing differences with increasing stand size, with a lack of equivalence between the small and large sawtimber classes. Note that both the direction and magnitude of the differences were variable across the forest type groups. Hemlock/Sitka spruce displayed a strong trend in the opposite direction, with large differences between the two approaches for the small and medium size classes, and a very small difference in the large sawtimber class. The difference between the two sets of estimates for the woodland group that is shown in Table 1 is readily apparent in Fig. 3a, with a large increase in the percent difference as the stand size class increases. This may be due to the lack of woodland biomass equations based on diameter at root collar (drc) and the difficulty of obtaining accurate drc measurements. Bragg [17] and Bragg and McElligott [15] have discussed the importance of diameter at breast height (dbh) in some detail, comparing the performance of local, regional, and national equations for southern pines across a range of diameters. While most equations returned fairly similar estimates for trees up to 50 cm dbh, equation behavior diverged at larger diameters, in some cases returning estimates that were considerably different. In these examples, the national level Jenkins equations [1] did not produce extreme estimates, they were intermediate to those returned by local and regional equations. Melson et al. [16] also noted that considerable error could be introduced when applying equations to trees with a dbh value outside the range on which the equations were developed.
Fig. 3

Effect of the two alternate biomass equations as relative difference in stock (panel a, positive difference, panel b, negative). Estimates are classified by forest type group and stand size class. The error bar represents the confidence interval used in the equivalence tests. In general, small stands have at least 50 % of stocking in small diameter trees, large stands have at least 50 % of stocking in large and medium diameter trees, with large tree stocking ≥ medium tree. The 12 forest type groups included here are: loblolly/shortleaf pine, pinyon/juniper, ponderosa pine, oak/pine, oak/hickory, and woodland hardwoods in panel a, and white/red/jack pine, spruce/fir, Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, hemlock/Sitka spruce, and maple/beech/birch in panel b

Equivalence was not tested at the level of the individual tree, though a random subset of individual tree estimates were plotted for each species group to compare tree-level biomass estimates. These plots reflect the patterns demonstrated above, with one method producing values consistently higher or lower than the other, the differences becoming more apparent at larger diameters. Tree data were also classified by east and west to further explore equation behavior within species groups where there are considerable differences in the range of tree diameters, east versus west. In many cases, no trends were revealed, but there are some key differences; a notable example is shown in Fig. 4a, b, which show the results of tree-level carbon estimates by each set of equations, categorized as east and west. In Fig. 4a, the eastern US, the Jenkins estimates are larger than those produced from the Chojnacky equations, while in Fig. 4b, the western US, the Jenkins estimates are generally somewhat lower, with the exception of the “Abies; LoSG” group. Figure 5 shows similar data for the woodland taxa; again, there is a considerable difference between the estimates computed with the two methods, with the Jenkins equations producing consistently lower estimates than the Chojnacky equations. In this case, we see no obvious differences between the predictions in the East or West.
Fig. 4

Examples of the Chojnacky-based and Jenkins-based estimates for aboveground carbon mass (kg) of individual live trees (plotted by diameter at breast height, dbh). Separate panels show the East (a, North and South) and the West (b, Pacific Coast and Rocky Mountain). This example includes trees within the fir species group of Jenkins (black) and their mapping to Chojnacky (red) species groups, which are identified in Table 2. Data points include applicable live trees in the FIADB tree data table up to the 99th percentile of diameters in the east and west, respectively

Fig. 5

Examples of the Chojnacky-based and Jenkins-based estimates for aboveground carbon mass (kg) of individual live trees by dbh. This example includes all trees within the woodland species group of Jenkins (black) and their mapping to Chojnacky species groups (not identified) in the East (red, North and South) and the West (blue, Pacific Coast and Rocky Mountain). Data points include all applicable live trees in the FIADB tree data table up to the 99th percentile of diameters in the East and West, respectively

As mentioned above, the belowground component equations were also revised in the 2014 publication, and while not divided according to hardwood and softwood, the revised root component equations are subdivided by coarse and fine roots. There are important differences in the shape of the root component curve between the two approaches (Fig. 6), and the Jenkins hardwood equation yields a consistently lower proportion than the Chojnacky equation. This suggests that adopting the Chojnacky estimates for full above- and belowground tree would add up to an additional 2–3 % of biomass for hardwoods but would also affect some softwood estimates. A preliminary analysis did show an effect on the test for the 5 % equivalence for some categories. However, our emphases here are the various species groups/equations and not the components.
Fig. 6

Root component by diameter of the Chojnacky-based estimates (black) relative to the softwood (blue) and hardwood (red) root components of the Jenkins-based estimates. Root biomass is calculated as equal to a proportion of aboveground biomass

Conclusions

The revised approach to developing these biomass equations has the effect of providing better regional differentiation/representation at the plot/stand level summaries by allowing for separation within the taxonomic classes according to wood properties or growth habit. The emergence of Southern pines as distinctly different under the Chojnacky groups is one example. It is challenging to provide specific criteria for choosing one set of equations over the other, since validating any biomass equation requires the destructive sampling of multiple stems across a range of diameters. The Chojnacky groups appear to provide greater resolution across forest types and regions. From this, investigators working in southern pine, northern spruce-fir, pinyon-juniper, and woodland types may be advised to use the updated equations [12], which provide more taxonomic resolution. It should also be noted that estimates of change over time are somewhat less sensitive to equation choice than stock estimates, so if change is the primary variable of interest, the user can select either equation set, based on personal preference.

Individual large diameter trees can be very different—Chojnacky relative to Jenkins—given the general trends of the tree-level estimates (Figs. 4 and 5 in this manuscript as well as Figs. 2, 3, and 4 in Chojnacky et al. [12]). This effect of one or a very few larger trees can result in very different estimates even in an “equivalent” forest type group, and this potential for larger differences is reflected in plot-level data. For example, in some eastern hardwood type groups, which were consistently identified as equivalent, up to one-third of the plots were individually more than 5 % different. The oak/gum/cypress type group in the South had 8 % of the plots with greater carbon density by over 5 % with the Jenkins estimates, while 27 % of plots had over 5 % greater carbon. The remaining 65 % of the individual plots are within the 5 % bounds (data not shown here). This is consistent with our observation about similarities between the two sets and scale (Fig. 2)—the sometimes obvious and large differences for some forest type groups (all scales) become obscured when summed to total live tree carbon for the US. Singling out the correct or most accurate equations is beyond the scope here; however, caution is always warranted when applying equations to trees that are considerably outside the range of diameters used to construct the equations [16].

Our results point to a few forest type groups that are clearly not equivalent—southern pines, northern spruce-fir, and lower productivity arid western forests—while the majority of forest type groups are generally equivalent at the scales presented. Overall, the possibility of very different results between the Chojnacky and Jenkins sets decreases with aggregate summaries of those ‘equivalent’ type groups.

Methods

Tree data source

In order to implement the revised biomass equations and identify applications where they are effectively interchangeable, or equivalent, we used the Forest Inventory and Analysis Data Base (FIADB) compiled by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the US Forest Service [13]. The data are based on continuous systematic annualized sampling of US forest lands, which are then compiled and made available by the FIA program of the US Forest Service [18]; the specific data in use here were downloaded from http://apps.fs.fed.us/fiadb-downloads/datamart.html on 02 June 2015. Surveys are organized and conducted on a large system of permanent plots over all land within individual states so that a portion of the survey data is collected each year on a continuous cycle, with remeasurement at 5 or 10 years depending on the state. The portion of the data used here include the conterminous United States (i.e., 48 states), and the portion of southern coastal Alaska that has the established permanent annual survey plots (the gray areas in Fig. 1).

Our focus here is on the tree data of the FIADB, and for this analysis we present the Chojnacky and Jenkins estimates in terms of carbon mass (i.e., kg carbon per tree or tonnes per hectare per plot). We use the entire tree data table to assure that all applicable species (the gray areas in Fig. 1) are represented. All other summaries are based on the most recent (most up-to-date) set of tree and plot data available per state, with the Chojnacky and Jenkins estimates expressed as tonnes of carbon per hectare in live trees on forest inventory plots. These plot-level values are expanded to population totals, that is, total carbon stock per state, as provided within the FIADB as the basis for the result presented in Fig. 2. A subset of the current forest plot level summaries where the entire plot is identified as forested (i.e., single condition forest plots) is the basis for the results provided in Table 1 and Fig. 3.

Application of Chojnacky et al. [12] to the FIADB

Chojnacky et al. [12] provided a revised and expanded set of biomass equations following the approach of Jenkins et al. [1]. The revised equations are based on an approach similar to that of Jenkins et al. [1] and with an expanded database of published biomass equations; see Chojnacky et al. [12] for details. The new set of 35 Chojnacky species groups are based on taxon (family or genera), growth habit, or average wood density. See Table 2 for the links between species in the FIADB and the Jenkins and Chojnacky classifications. This allocation to the newer categories is not a simple mapping of the 10 Jenkins groups to Chojnacky groups. That is, while Jenkins groups are split among Chojnacky groups, so also the Chojnacky groups are in some cases composed of species from different Jenkins groups. While Chojnacky et al. [12] developed the set of new groups based on the FIADB, similar to Jenkins et al. [1], a very small percentage of hardwood species were not explicitly named (i.e., families were not listed [12]). We assigned these to the “Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc” group (Table 2).
Table 2

Guide to applying Chojnacky species groups (as shown in Table 5, Chojnacky et al. [12]) to US species

Scientific name

Common name

Jenkins group

Chojnacky et al. parameters when diameter is measured at

Breast height

Root collar

Abies spp.

Fir spp.

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. amabilis

Pacific silver fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. balsamea

Balsam fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; LoSG

Pinac; WL

A. bracteata

Bristlecone fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. concolor

White fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. fraseri

Fraser fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. grandis

Grand fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica

Corkbark fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. lasiocarpa

Subalpine fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; LoSG

Pinac; WL

A. magnifica

California red fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. shastensis

Shasta red fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

A. procera

Noble fir

T Fir/Hem

Abies; HiSG

Pinac; WL

Chamaecyparis spp.

White-cedar spp.

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

C. lawsoniana

Port Orford cedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

C. nootkatensi

Alaska yellow cedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

C. thyoides

Atlantic white cedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

Cupressus spp.

Cypress

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

C. arizonica

Arizona cypress

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

C. bakeri

Baker/Modoc cypress

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

C. forbesii

Tecate cypress

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

C. macrocarpa

Monterey cypress

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

C. sargentii

Sargent’s cypress

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

C. macnabiana

MacNab’s cypress

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

Juniperus spp.

Redcedar/juniper spp.

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. pinchotii

Pinchot juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. coahuilensis

Redberry juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. flaccida

Drooping juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. ashei

Ashe juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. californica

California juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. deppeana

Alligator juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. occidentalis

Western juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. osteosperma

Utah juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. scopulorum

Rocky Mtn. juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. virginiana var. silcicola

Southern redcedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. virginiana

Easterm redcedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

J. monosperma

Oneseed juniper

Woodland

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

Larix spp.

Larch spp.

Cedar/Larch

Larix

Pinac; WL

L. laricina

Tamarack

Cedar/Larch

Larix

Pinac; WL

L. lyallii

Subalpine larch

Cedar/Larch

Larix

Pinac; WL

L. occidentalis

Western larch

Cedar/Larch

Larix

Pinac; WL

Calocedrus decurrens

Incense-cedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

Picea spp.

Spruce spp.

Spruce

Pice; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. abies

Norway spruce

Spruce

Pice; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. breweriana

Brewer spruce

Spruce

Pice; HiSG

Pinac; WL

Picea engelmannii

Englemann spruce

Spruce

Pice; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. glauca

White spruce

Spruce

Pice; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. mariana

Black spruce

Spruce

Pice; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. pungens

Blue spruce

Spruce

Pice; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. rubens

Red spruce

Spruce

Pice; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. sitchensis

Sitka spruce

Spruce

Pice; LoSG

Pinac; WL

Pinus spp.

Pine spp.

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. albicaulis

Whitebark pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. aristata

Rocky Mtn. bristlecone pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. attenuata

Knobcone pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. balfouriana

Foxtail pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. banksiana

Jack pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. edulis

Common/two-needle pinyon

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. clausa

Sand pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. contorta

Lodgepole pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. coulteri

Coulter pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. echinata

Shortleaf pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. elliottii

Slash pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. engelmannii

Apache pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. flexilis

Limber pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. strobiformis

Southwestern white pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. glabra

Spruce pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. jeffreyi

Jeffrey pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. lambertiana

Sugar pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. leiophylla

Chihauhua pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. monticola

Western white pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. muricata

Bishop pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. palustris

Longleaf pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. ponderosa

Ponderosa pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. pungens

Table Mountain pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. radiata

Monterey pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. resinosa

Red pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. rigida

Pitch pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. sabiniana

Gray pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. serotina

Pond pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. strobus

Eastern white pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. sylvestris

Scotch pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. taeda

Loblolly pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. virginiana

Viginia pine

Pine

Pinu; HiSG

Pinac; WL

P. monophylla

Singleleaf pinyon

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. discolor

Border pinyon

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. arizonica

Arizona pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. nigra

Austrian pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. washoensis

Washoe pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. quadrifolia

Four leaf pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. torreyana

Torrey pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. cembroides

Mexican pinyon pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. remota

Papershell pinyon pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. longaeva

Great Basin bristlecone pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. monophylla var. fallax

Arizona pinyon pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

P. elliottii var. elliottii

Honduras pine

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

Pinac; WL

Pseudotsuga spp.

Douglas-fir spp.

Doug Fir

Pseud

Pinac; WL

P. macrocarpa

Bigcone Douglas-fir

Doug Fir

Pseud

Pinac; WL

P. menziesii

Douglas-fir

Doug Fir

Pseud

Pinac; WL

Sequoia sempervirens

Redwood

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

Sequoiadendron giganteum

Giant sequoia

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

Taxodium spp.

Baldcypress spp.

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

T. distichum

Baldcypress

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

T. ascendens

Pondcypress

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

T. mucronatum

Montezuma baldcypress

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; HiSG

Cupre; WL

Taxus spp.

Yew spp.

T Fir/Hem

Pseud

 

T. brevifolia

Pacific yew

T Fir/Hem

Pseud

 

T. floridana

Florida yew

T Fir/Hem

Pseud

 

Thuja spp.

Thuja spp.

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

T. occidentalis

Northern white-cedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; LoSG

Cupre; WL

T. plicata

Western redcedar

Cedar/Larch

Cupr; MedSG

Cupre; WL

Torreya spp.

Torreya (nutmeg) spp.

T Fir/Hem

Pseud

 

T. californica

California torreya

T Fir/Hem

Pseud

 

T. taxifolia

Florida torreya

T Fir/Hem

Pseud

 

Tsuga spp.

Hemlock spp.

T Fir/Hem

Tsug; HiSG

Pinac; WL

T. canadensis

Eastern hemlock

T Fir/Hem

Tsug; LoSG

Pinac; WL

T. caroliniana

Carolina hemlock

T Fir/Hem

Tsug; HiSG

Pinac; WL

T. heterophylla

Western hemlock

T Fir/Hem

Tsug; HiSG

Pinac; WL

T. mertensiana

Mountain hemlock

T Fir/Hem

Tsug; HiSG

Pinac; WL

Dead conifer

Unknown dead conifer

Pine

Pinu; LoSG

 

Acacia spp.

Acacia spp.

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

A. farnesiana

Sweet acacia

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

A. greggii

Catclaw acacia

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Acer spp.

Maple spp.

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. barbatum

Florida maple

S Maple/Bir

Acer; HiSG

 

A. macrophyllum

Bigleaf maple

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. negundo

Boxelder

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. nigrum

Black maple

H Maple/Oak

Acer; HiSG

 

A. pensylvanicum

Striped maple

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. rubrum

Red maple

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. saccharinum

Silver maple

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. saccharum

Sugar maple

H Maple/Oak

Acer; HiSG

 

A. spicatum

Mountain maple

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. platanoides

Norway maple

S Maple/Bir

Acer; LoSG

 

A. glabrum

Rocky Mtn. maple

Woodland

Acer; LoSG

 

A. grandidentatum

Bigtooth maple

Woodland

Acer; LoSG

 

A. leucoderme

Chalk maple

Mixed HW

Acer; LoSG

 

Aesculus spp.

Buckeye spp.

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

A.glabra

Ohio buckeye

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

A.flava

Yellow buckeye

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

A.californica

California buckeye

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

A.glabra var. arguta

Texas buckeye

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

A.pavia

Red buckeye

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

A.sylvatica

Painted buckeye

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Albizia julibrissin

Mimosa/silktree

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Alnus spp.

Alder spp.

Aspen/Alder

Betu; LoSG

 

A. rubra

Red alder

Aspen/Alder

Betu; LoSG

 

A. rhombifolia

White alder

Aspen/Alder

Betu; LoSG

 

A. oblongifolia

Arizona alder

Aspen/Alder

Betu; LoSG

 

A. glutinosa

European alder

Aspen/Alder

Betu; LoSG

 

Amelanchier spp.

Serviceberry spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

A. arborea

Common serviceberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

A. sanguinea

Roundleaf serviceberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

Arbutus spp.

Madrone spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

A. menziesii

Pacific madrone

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

A. arizonica

Arizona madrone

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

A. xalapensis

Texas madrone

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Asimina triloba

Pawpaw

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Betula spp.

Birch spp.

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med1SG

 

B. alleghaniensis

Yellow birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med2SG

 

B. lenta

Sweet birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; HiSG

 

B. nigra

River birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med1SG

 

B. occidentalis

Water birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med2SG

 

B. papyrifera

Paper birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med1SG

 

B. uber

Virginia roundleaf birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med2SG

 

B. utahensis

Northwestern paper birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med2SG

 

B. populifolia

Gray birch

S Maple/Bir

Betu; Med1SG

 

Sideroxylon lanuginosum

Chittamwood/gum bumelia

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Carpinus caroliniana

American hornbeam

Mixed HW

Betu; Med2SG

 

Carya spp.

Hickory spp.

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. aquatica

Water hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. cordiformis

Bitternut hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. glabra

Pignut hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. illinoinensis

Pecan

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. laciniosa

Shellbark hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. myristiciformis

Nutmeg hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. ovata

Shagbark hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. texana

Black hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. alba

Mockernut hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. pallida

Sand hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. floridana

Scrub hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. ovalis

Red hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

C. carolinae-septentrionalis

Southern shagbark hickory

H Maple/Oak

Fab/Jug/Carya

 

Castanea spp.

Chestnut spp.

Mixed HW

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

C. dentata

American chestnut

Mixed HW

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

C. pumila

Allegheny chinkapin

Mixed HW

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

C. pumila var. ozarkensis

Ozark chinkapin

Mixed HW

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

C. mollissima

Chinese chestnut

Mixed HW

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Chrysolepis chrysophylla

Giant/golden chinkapin

Mixed HW

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Catalpa spp.

Catalpa spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. bignonioide

Southern catalpa

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. speciosa

Northern catalpa

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Celtis

Hackberry spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. laevigata

Sugarberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. occidentalis

Hackberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. laevigata var. reticulata

Netleaf hackberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Cercis canadensis

Eastern redbud

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Cercocarpus ledifoliu

Curlleaf mountain-mahogany

Woodland

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

Cladrastis kentukea

Yellowwood

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Cornus spp.

Dogwood spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. florida

Flowering dogwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. nuttallii

Pacific dogwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Crataegus spp.

Hawthorn spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. crusgalli

Cockspur hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. mollis

Downy hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. brainerdii

Brainerd’s hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. calpodendron

Pear hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. chrysocarpa

Fireberry hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. dilatata

Broadleaf hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. flabellata

Fanleaf hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. monogyna

Oneseed hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. pedicellata

Scarlet hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

Eucalyptus spp.

Eucalyptus spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

E. globulus

Tasmanian bluegum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

E. camaldulensi

River redgum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

E. grandis

Grand eucalyptus

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

E. robusta

Swamp mahogany

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Diospyros spp.

Persimmon spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

D. virginiana

Common persimmon

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

D. texana

Texas persimmon

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ehretia anacua

Anacua knockaway

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Fagus grandifolia

American beech

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Fraxinus spp.

Ash spp.

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. americana

White ash

Mixed HW

Olea; HiSG

 

F. latifolia

Oregon ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. nigra

Black ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. pennsylvanica

Green ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. profunda

Pumpkin ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. quadrangulata

Blue ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. velutina

Velvet ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. caroliniana

Carolina ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

F. texensis

Texas ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

Gleditsia spp.

Honeylocust spp.

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

G. aquatica

Waterlocust

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

G. triacanthos

Honeylocust

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Gordonia lasianthus

Loblolly-bay

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Gymnocluadus diocicus

Kentucky coffeetree

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Halesia spp.

Silverbell spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

H. carolina

Carolina silverbell

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

H. diptera

Two-wing silverbell

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

H. parviflora

Little silverbell

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ilex opaca

American holly

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Juglans spp.

Walnut spp.

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

 

J. cinerea

Butternut

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

 

J. nigra

Black walnut

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

 

J. hindsii

No. California black walnut

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

 

J. californica

So. California black walnut

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

 

J. microcarpa

Texas walnut

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

 

J. major

Arizona walnut

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

 

Liquidambar styraciflua

Sweetgum

Mixed HW

Hama

 

Liriodendron tulipifera

Yellow poplar

Mixed HW

Magno

 

Lithocarpus densiflorus

Tanoak

Mixed HW

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Maclura pomifera

Osage orange

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Magnolia spp.

Magnolia spp.

Mixed HW

Magno

 

M. acuminata

Cucumbertree

Mixed HW

Magno

 

M. grandiflora

Southern magnolia

Mixed HW

Magno

 

M. virginiana

Sweeetbay

Mixed HW

Magno

 

M. macrophylla

Bigleaf magnolia

Mixed HW

Magno

 

M. fraseri

Mountain/Frasier magnolia

Mixed HW

Magno

 

M. pyramidata

Pyramid magnolia

Mixed HW

Magno

 

M. tripetala

Umbrella magnolia

Mixed HW

Magno

 

Malus spp.

Apple spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

M. fusca

Oregon crab apple

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

M. angustifolia

Southern crabapple

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

M. coronaria

Sweet crabapple

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

M. ioensi

Prairie crabapple

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

Morus spp.

Mulberry spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

M. alba

White mulberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

M. rubra

Red mulberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

M. microphyll

Texas mulberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

M. nigra

Black mulberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Nyssa spp.

Tupelo spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

N. aquatica

Water tupelo

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

N. ogeche

Ogeechee tupelo

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

N. sylvatica

Blackgum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

N. biflora

Swamp tupelo

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ostrya virginiana

Eastern hophornbeam

Mixed HW

Betu; HiSG

 

Oxydendrum arboreum

Sourwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Paulownia tomentosa

Paulownia/empress tree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Persea spp.

Bay spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Persea borbonia

Redbay

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Planera aquatica

Water elm/planetree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Platanus spp.

Sycamore spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

P. racemosa

California sycamore

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

P. occidentalis

American sycamore

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

P. wrightii

Arizona sycamore

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Populus spp.

Cottonwood/poplar spp.

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. balsamifera

Balsam poplar

Aspen/Alder

Sali; LoSG

 

P. deltoides

Eastern cottonwood

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. grandidentata

Bigtooth aspen

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. heterophylla

Swamp cottonwood

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. deltoides

Plains cottonwood

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. tremuloides

Quaking aspen

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. balsamifera

Black cottonwood

Aspen/Alder

Sali; LoSG

 

P. fremontii

Fremont cottonwood

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. angustifolia

Narrlowleaf cottonwood

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. alba

Silver poplar

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

P. nigra

Lombardy poplar

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

Prosopis spp.

Mesquite spp.

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

P. glandulosa

Honey mesquite

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

P. velutina

Velvet mesquite

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

P. pubescens

Screwbean mesquite

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Prunus spp.

Cherry/plum spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. pensylvanica

Pin cherry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. serotina

Black cherry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. virginiana

Chokecherry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. persica

Peach

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. nigra

Canada plum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. americana

American plum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. emarginata

Bitter cherry

Woodland

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. alleghaniensis

Allegheny plum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. angustifolia

Chickasaw plum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. avium

Sweet cherry (domestic)

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. cerasus

Sour cherry (domestic)

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. domestica

European plum (domestic)

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

P. mahaleb

Mahaleb cherry (domestic)

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

Quercus spp.

Oak spp.

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. agrifolia

California live oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Q. alba

White oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. arizonica

Arizona white oak

Woodland

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. bicolor

Swamp white oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. chrysolepis

Canyon live oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. coccinea

Scarlet oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. douglasii

Blue oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Q. sinuata var. sinuata

Durand oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. ellipsoidalis

Northern pin oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. emoryi

Emory oak

Woodland

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. engelmannii

Englemann oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. falcata

Southern red oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. pagoda

Cherrybark oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. gambelii

Gambel oak

Woodland

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. garryana

Oregon white oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. ilicifolia

Scrub oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. imbricaria

Shingle oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. kelloggii

California black oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. laevis

Turkey oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. laurifolia

Laurel oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Q. lobata

California white oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. lyrata

Overcup oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. macrocarpa

Bur oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. marilandica

Blackjack oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. michauxi

Swamp chestnut oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. muehlenbergii

Chinkapin oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. nigra

Water oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. texana

Texas red oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. oblongifolia

Mexican blue oak

Woodland

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. palustris

Pin oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. phellos

Willow oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. prinus

Chestnut oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. rubra

Northern red oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. shumardii

Shumard oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. stellata

Post oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. simili

Delta post oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. velutina

Black oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. virginiana

Live oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Q. wislizeni

Interier live oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Q. margarettiae

Dwarf post oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Q. minima

Dwarf live oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Evergrn

Fagac; WL

Q. incana

Bluejack oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. hypoleucoides

Silverleaf oak

Woodland

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. oglethorpensis

Oglethorpe oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. prinoides

Dwarf chinkapin oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. grisea

Gray oak

Woodland

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. rugosa

Netleaf oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. gracilliformis

Chisos oak

Woodland

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Amyris elemifera

Sea torchwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Annona glabra

Pond apple

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Bursera simaruba

Gumbo limbo

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Casuarina spp.

Sheoak spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. glauca

Gray sheoak

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. lepidophloia

Belah

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Cinnamomum camphora

Camphortree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Citharexylum fruticosum

Florida fiddlewood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Citrus spp.

Citrus spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Coccoloba diversifolia

Tietongue/pigeon plum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Colubrina elliptica

Soldierwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Cordia sebestena

Longleaf geigertree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Cupaniopsis anacardioides

Carrotwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Condalia hookeri

Bluewood

Woodland

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ebenopsis ebano

Blackbead ebony

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Leucaena pulverulenta

Great leadtree

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Sophora affinis

Texas sophora

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Eugenia rhombea

Red stopper

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Exothea paniculata

Butterbough/inkwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ficus aurea

Florida strangler fig

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ficus citrifolia

Banyantree/shortleaf fig

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Guapira discolo

Beeftree/longleaf blolly

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Hippomane mancinella

Manchineel

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Lysiloma latisiliquum

False tamarind

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Mangifera indica

Mango

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Metopium toxiferum

Florida poisontree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Piscidia piscipula

Fishpoison tree

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Schefflera actinophylla

Octopus tree/schefflera

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Sideroxylon foetidissimum

False mastic

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Sideroxylon salicifolium

White bully/willow bustic

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Simarouba glauca

Paradisetree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Syzygium cumini

Java plum

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Tamarindus indica

Tamarind

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust

Mixed HW

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Robinia neomexicana

New Mexico locust

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Acoelorraphe wrightii

Everglades palm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Coccothrinax argentata

Florida silver palm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Cocos nucifera

Coconut palm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Roystonea spp.

Royal palm spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Sabal Mexicana

Mexican palmetto

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Sabal palmetto

Cabbage palmetto

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Thrinax morrisii

Key thatch palm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Thrinax radiata

Florida thatch palm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Arecaceae

Other palms

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Sapindus saponaria

Western soapberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Salix spp.

Willow spp.

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. amygdaloides

Peachleaf willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. nigra

Black willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. bebbiana

Bebb willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. bonplandiana

Bonpland willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. caroliniana

Coastal plain willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. pyrifolia

Balsam willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. alba

White willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. scouleriana

Scouder’s willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

S. sepulcralis

Weeping willow

Aspen/Alder

Sali; HiSG

 

Sassafras albidum

Sassafrass

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Sorbus spp.

Mountain ash spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

S. americana

American mountain ash

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

S. aucuparia

European mountain ash

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

S. decora

Northern mountain ash

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

Swietenia mahagoni

West Indian mahogany

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Tilia spp.

Basswood spp.

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

T. americana

American basswood

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

T. americana var. heterophylla

White basswood

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

T. americana var. caroliniana

Carolina basswood

Mixed HW

Hip/Til

 

Ulmus spp.

Elm spp.

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

U. alata

Winged elm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

U. americana

American elm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

U. crassifolia

Cedar elm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

U. pumila

Siberian elm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

U. rubra

Slippery elm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

U. serotina

September elm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

U. thomasii

Rock elm

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Umbellularia californica

California laurel

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Yucca brevifolia

Joshua tree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Avicennia germinan

Black mangrove

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Conocarpus erectus

Button mangrove

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Laguncularia racemosa

White mangrove

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Rhizophora mangle

American mangrove

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Olneya tesota

Desert ironwood

Woodland

Fab/Jug

Fab/Ros; WL

Tamarix spp.

Saltcedar

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Melaleuca quinquenervia

Melaleuca

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Melia azedarach

Chinaberry

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Triadica sebifera

Chinese tallowtree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Vernicia fordii

Tungoil tree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Cotinus obovatus

Smoketree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Russian olive

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Tree broadleaf

Unknown dead hardwood

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Tree unknown

Unknown live tree

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

C. phaenopyrum

Washington hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. succulenta

Fleshy hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

C. uniflora

Dwarf hawthorn

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

Fab/Ros; WL

F. berlandieriana

Berlandier ash

Mixed HW

Olea; LoSG

 

Persea americana

Avocado

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Ligustrum sinense

Chinese privet

Mixed HW

Olea; HiSG

 

Q. gravesii

Graves oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. polymorpha

Mexican white oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. buckleyi

Buckley oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Q. laceyi

Lacey oak

H Maple/Oak

Faga; Decid

Fagac; WL

Cordia boissieri

Anacahuita Texas olive

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

Tamarix aphylla

Athel tamarisk

Mixed HW

Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc

 

The first part of the Chojnacky parameter designator is the species group; text after a semicolon indicates the relevant category when more than one set of coefficients is given for a group

HiSG the coefficients given for the highest specific gravity in the designated species group, LoSG the lowest specific gravity given for a species group, MedSG select the coefficients given for the mid-range specific gravity. WL select the set of coefficients given for the woodland type. For example, Fagac; WL indicates that the second to the last line of Table 5, Woodland, Fagaceae should be used rather than the coefficients provided for Hardwood; Fagaceae

In order to systematically assign all the biomass estimates presented in Chojnacky et al. [12] to trees in the FIADB (as in this analysis), we present a short set of steps to make this link. Note that these include our interpretation of some of the assignments of species to groups that are not explicit such as some assignments to the woodland groups or allocation to deciduous versus evergreen. These seven steps, which also include application of the revised root component, are the basis for the biomass equation group assignments in Table 2. Note that tables and figures referenced in this list refer to those in Chojnacky et al. [12]:
  1. 1.

    Overall, follow the placement of taxa as suggested within the manuscript (i.e., as in Tables 2, 3, 4, and Figs. 2, 3, and 4).

     
  2. 2.

    If a tree record is one of the five families (of Table 4) and the tree diameter is measured as diameter at root collar then one of the Table 4 woodland equations applies. Otherwise, if one of the five (Table 4) families and diameter is dbh then use the appropriate equation from Tables 2 or 3. If not one of the five Table 4 families but tree diameter is provided as a root collar measurement, then convert drc to dbh following information provided in Fig. 1 before applying a Table 2 or 3 equation.

     
  3. 3.

    The calculations for the woodland (Table 4) Cupressaceae (“Cupre; WL”) uses the “2nd juniper” equation from footnote #2 in Table 5.

     
  4. 4.

    The Fabaceae/Juglandaceae split into the two groups—“Fab/Jug/Carya” and “Fab/Jug”—is according to the genus Carya versus all others (i.e., not-Carya ).

     
  5. 5.

    Fagaceae’s deciduous/evergreen split—“Faga; Decid” and “Faga; Evergrn”—sets deciduous as the default. The Fagaceae allocated to evergreen are those five species explicitly listed as evergreen in Table 3 and those identified as evergreen from the USDA PLANTS database [19], which currently includes the addition of three live oak species.

     
  6. 6.

    The 6-family general equation at the middle of page 136 (in Table 3 of Chojnacky et al. [12])—“Cor/Eri/Lau/Etc”—is assigned trees by family from 3 sources: (a) the six families listed in Table 3; (b) the five additional families noted in the Fig. 3 caption, and (c) any additional formerly unassigned hardwood species.

     
  7. 7.

    Roots—the Chojnacky estimates use both of the belowground root equations of Table 6 (the sum of the two is generally equivalent to the original Jenkins root component). Note these are dbh-based, so a drc tree should first convert drc-to-dbh according to Fig. 1. Also note, all other (other than root) components of the original Jenkins et al. [1] are applicable here.

     

Identifying equivalence between the alternate biomass estimates

Tests of equivalence of the plot level (tonnes carbon per hectare) representation of the Jenkins and Chojnacky groups are included principally as guidance as to where the choice of biomass equations may matter. The analysis does not address relative accuracy of the two alternatives. Specifically, we focused on equivalence tests of the mean difference between the two estimates at the plot, or stand, level according to region and forest type groups. While these are species (group) level equations, any practical effect (of interest) is at plot to landscape to national (carbon reporting) levels. Equivalence tests are appropriate where the questions are more directly “are the groups similar, or effectively the same?” and not so much “are they different?” [20, 21]. This distinction follows from the idea that failure to reject a null hypothesis of no difference between populations does not necessarily indicate that the null hypothesis is true. The essential characteristic of an equivalence test is that the null hypothesis is stated such that the two populations are different [22, 23] which can be viewed as the reverse of the more common approach to hypothesis testing. The specific measure, or threshold, of where two populations can be considered equivalent versus different is set by researchers and a conclusion of not-different, or equivalent, results from rejecting the null hypothesis (that the two are different).

Equivalence tests presented here are paired-sample tests [24, 25] because each sample is based on estimates from each of the Chojnacky and Jenkins groups. Our test statistic is the difference between estimates (Chojnacky minus Jenkins), and we set “equivalence” as a mean difference less than 5 % of the Jenkins-based estimate. Putting our test in terms of the null and alternative hypotheses following the format of publications describing this approach [22, 24], we have:

Null, H0: (Chojnacky-Jenkins) <−5 % Jenkins or (Chojnacky-Jenkins) >5 Jenkins

and

Alternative, H1: −5 % Jenkins ≤ (Chojnacky-Jenkins) ≤5 % Jenkins

We use the two one-sided tests (TOST) of our two-part null hypothesis that the plot-level difference was greater than 5 % of the Jenkins value and set α = 0.05—one test that the mean difference is less than minus 5 % of the Jenkins estimate, and one test that the mean difference is greater than 5 % of the Jenkins estimate. Within an application of the TOST where α is set to 0.05, a one-step approach to accomplish the TOST result is establish a 2-sided 90 % confidence interval for the test statistic; if this falls entirely within the prescribed interval then the two populations can be considered equivalent [26]. We also extended the level of “equivalence” to within 10 % of the Jenkins-based estimates for some analyses in order to look for more general trends, or broad agreement between the two approaches.

Our equivalence tests are based on the paired estimates of carbon tonnes per hectare on the single-condition forested plots variously classified according to regions described in Fig. 1, forest type-groups listed in Table 1, or stand size class as in Fig. 3 (see [13] for additional details about these classifications). The distribution of the test statistic (mean difference) was obtained from resampling with replacement [27] ten thousand times, with a mean value determined for each sample. The number of plots available varied depending on the classification (Table 1; Fig. 3). We did not test for equivalence if fewer than 30 plots were available, and if over 2000 plots were available we randomly selected 2000 for resampling. The choice of 2000 is based on preliminary analysis of these data that showed the confidence interval from resampling converge with percentiles obtained directly from the distribution of the large number of sample plots, usually well below 1000; the 2000 is simply a round number well beyond this convergence without getting too computationally intense. The 90 % confidence interval (the same as the 95 % interval of TOST) obtained for the distribution of the mean difference is according to a bias corrected and accelerated percentile method [28, 29]. Note that our tests for equivalence are based on comparing this confidence interval to the ±5 % of the corresponding Jenkins based estimate. Table 1 provides the estimates from the two approaches, with the equivalence test results indicated with asterisks. Similarly, the equivalence test results in Fig. 3 are not in the tonnes per hectare of the resampled values and the confidence interval, they are represented as percentage of Jenkins estimates—for this, equivalence is established if the entire confidence interval is within the zero side of the respective 5 %.

Declarations

Authors’ contributions

Design and analysis was split equally between JS and CH; JS was responsible for coding and calculations, CH developed the figures and tables, and writing was equally divided between JS and CH. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the helpful feedback from Linda Heath and William Leak on the draft manuscript. We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their time and comments.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station

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© Hoover and Smith. 2016